Soviet and American precursors to the gamification of work

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“Soviet and American precursors to the gamification of work” by Mark J. Nelson. In Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference, 2012, pp. 23-26.


A number of commentators have proposed adapting elements derived from game mechanics to workplaces, to motivate employees via techniques that, the argument goes, have proven successful in a videogame context, and thus may have wider motivational applications. This general strategy has become grouped under the term “gamification”. I argue the gamification-of-work movement has at least two major precursors, one in the Soviet Union of the early to mid 20th century, and another in American management of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The Soviet approach focused on games to increase productivity, via experiments ranging from purely competitive games directly tied to productivity, to attempts at morale-building via team games and workplace self-expression. The American management approach focused more strongly on a sense of childhood play, aiming to weaken the work/play split, but often with games and competition integrated into the framework. Neither approach is identical to the gamification-of-work movement, but there exist significant overlaps, and thus both the historical movements themselves, and the critiques that have been directed at them, should be studied in order to better understand how to approach current attempts in light of past experiences.

BibTeX entry:

   author = {Mark J. Nelson},
   title = {Soviet and {A}merican precursors to the gamification of work},
   booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek
   pages = {23--26},
   year = {2012}

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